PS> git help # Access help (list of commands) PS> git help <commandPS> # Access help for 'command'
PS> git config --global user.name "John Doe" # set name of user PS> git config --global user.email "[email protected]" # user email PS> git config --global color.ui true # color ui PS> git config --global core.editor emacs # editor PS> git config --global merge.tool <difftoolPS> # diff tool
PS> git config user.email "[email protected]" # user email for local repo PS> git config --list # shows global and local settings
Start a repo
PS> git init # create local repository in the current folder PS> touch README.md # create README file PS> git ci -am "Created repository."
PS> git add <filenamePS> # add filename to staging area PS> git add <list of filesPS> # adds files to staging area PS> git add --all # add all new, modified or deleted files to the staging area PS> git add *.txt # add all txt files in the current folder PS> git add "*.txt" # add all txt files in the whole project PS> git add . # add all files in this folder and subfolders PS> git commit -m "message" # commit staged files with message PS> git commit -am "message" # Add changes from all tracked files and commit PS> git status # show current status of the repository PS> git log # shows history of commits PS> git log --oneline # show all commits in one single line
Git uses vi if no default editor is set to edit commit messages
ESC: leave mode
i: insert mode
:wq: save and quit (write + quit)
:q!: cancel and quit
PS> git diff # show unstaged differences since last commit PS> git diff HEAD # like git diff PS> git diff HEAD^ # git diff parent of last commit against current PS> git diff HEAD^^ # git diff grandparent of last commit against current PS> git diff HEAD^5 # git diff 5 commits ago against current PS> git diff HEAD^..HEAD # show diff of second most recent commit against the most recent PS> git diff --staged # show staged differences since last commit PS> git diff <SHA1PS> <SHA2PS> # show diff between commits identified by SHA's or abbreviated SHA's PS> git diff <branch1PS> <branch2PS> # do a diff of two branches PS> git diff --since=1.week.ago --until=1.minute.ago # You can use time based ranges to do diffs
Unstage, reset or cancel
PS> git reset HEAD <filePS> # Unstage file PS> git checkout -- <filePS> # Reset file to state in last commit PS> git reset --soft HEAD^ # Undo last commit and put changes in the staging area PS> git reset --hard HEAD^ # Undo last commit completely PS> git reset --hard HEAD^^ # Undo last two commits completely
- HEAD refers to the last commit on the current branch
- HEAD^ refers to the second last commit on the current branch
- HEAD^^ refers to the third last commit on the current branch
- It is recommended not to undo commits once you have pushed changes to the canonical repository
Ammend a commit
PS> git commit -ammend -m "message" # Adds staged files to last commit. The commit message will override the previous one
Remote repositories. Pushing and pulling
PS> git remote add origin <remote repoPS> # by convention use origin for canonical remote PS> git remote -v # show remote repositories (verbose) PS> git remote rm <namePS> # remove remote repositories PS> git push -u <remotePS> <branchPS> # push local repository to remote one PS> git pull <remotePS> <branchPS> # pull changes from remote to local repository
- The -u option sets the default upstream repo so you can use “git push” and “git pull” without specifying a remote
Cloning a repository
PS> git clone <addressPS> # clone repository into local repo named as the repo PS> git clone <addressPS> <namePS> # clone repository into local folder <namePS>
PS> git branch # list local branches PS> git branch <branch namePS> # Create a new branch PS> git branch -d <branch namePS> # Delete a branch PS> git branch -D <branch namePS> # Force delete a branch (the normal -d will result in a warning if there are changes in the branch that haven't been merged anywhere) PS> git checkout <branch namePS> # Switch to a branch PS> git checkout -b <branch namePS> # Create a new branch and switch to it PS> git push origin <branch namePS> # Push branch to remote branch PS> git push origin <local branch namePS>:<remote branch namePS> # Push local branch to the remote branch that we select PS> git merge <from branchPS> # merge a branch to the current branch
PS> git branch -r # list all remote branches PS> git push origin --delete <branch namePS> # Delete a branch in the remote "origin" repository PS> git push origin :<branch namePS> # Delete a branch in the remote repository PS> git push origin <branch namePS> # Push branch to remote branch (this also works with newly created local branches) PS> git remote show origin # shows remote branches and how they map to local branches PS> git remote prune origin # clean up references to stale remote branches (remote branches that have been deleted)
A tag is a reference to a specific commit.
PS> git tag # List tags PS> git checkout v0.0.0.1 # Check out code at commit tagged v0.0.0.1 PS> git tag -a v0.0.0.1 -m "version 0.0.0.1" # Add a new tack PS> git push --tags # Push tags to a remote
Rebasing allows you to have a better commit history by removing the necessity of merging branches via the
merge command and thus the existence of merge commits.
A rebase consists on two steps:
Fetch changes for remote repository
- Move all changes to master which are not in origin/master to a temporary area
- Run all origin/master commits
- Run all commits in the temporary area, one at a time
PS> git fetch # fetch PS> git rebase <branch namePS> # rebases from branch
If you want to, for instance merge a local branch to master via rebase you would:
- Go to feature branch:
git checkout feature-101
- Rebase from master:
git rebase master
- Go to master and merge
git checkout master
git merge feature-101
When there are conflicts during rebase, git will prompt us to resolve the conflict and run the rebase command with different arguments based on if we want to continue, skip the conflicting commit, or abort the rebase.
PS> git rebase --continue # Use to continue rebasing after resolving conflict PS> git rebase --skip # Use to skip the conflicting commit PS> git rebase --abort # Use to checkout the original branch and stop rebasing
PS> git log # show branch history PS> git config --global color.ui true # colorize ui and thus log as well PS> git log --pretty=oneline # show history as one line commits PS> git log --oneline PS> git log --pretty=format:"%h %ad- %s [%an]" # this allows you to customize the format of the log PS> git log --oneline -p # Show what changed in each commit (files and file contents) (patch output) PS> git log --oneline --stat # Show how many inserts and deletions per file and commit PS> git log --oneline --graph # Visual representation of branches and commits PS> git log --until=1.minute.ago # use dates to limit log command PS> git log --since=1.day.ago PS> git log --since=1.hour.ago PS> git log --since=1.month.ago --until=2.weeks.ago PS> git log --since=2010.10.10 --until=2012.12.12
Note: Some of the options you can use in
git log --pretty:format are:
git help log for more options.
You can use the
blame command to see all the changes (line by line) on a given file throughout the whole file history and who made those changes.
PS> git blame index.html --date short # show all changes in index.html and who made them
You can exclude files in your local repository by putting them in the
.git/info/exclude file, either specifically or using patterns.
You can ignore files completely and in all repositories by adding files and file patterns to the
.gitignore file in your repository.
PS> git rm <file namePS> # remove file
To untrack a file (remove it from being tracked by git but not from your actual file system) use:
PS> git rm --cached <file namePS> # untrack file
These are some useful git aliases:
PS> git config --global alias.co checkout PS> git config --global alias.br branch PS> git config --global alias.ci commit PS> git config --global alias.st status PS> git config --global alias.mylog "log --pretty:format..." PS> git config --global alias.lol "log --graph --decorate --pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit --all"
Written by Jaime González García , Front-end software engineer, tinkerer and master of the arcane arts. You should follow him on Twitter where he shares useful stuff!Follow @vintharas